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Underground Leeds-A virtual tour
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Underground Leeds-A virtual tour
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 02:50:32.  


Underground Leeds-A virtual tour
24/12/2010

Let the journey begin!



*Sheepscar beck*
Buslingthorpe Lane-Cross Stamford Street.

The City of Leeds was expanding fast during the industrial revolution, heavy industry was being built alongside it's watercourses. Factories and mills now stood on once open countryside. The evolution of Meanwood beck started in 1866 when a 'Sub Becks Committee' was inaugurated to improve Leeds main industrial watercourse. It was decided to canalise the beck from Buslingthorpe to the City. The beck was dished out and paved with stone sets and channels to maximise effeciency, the work to canalise the culvert was complete by 1872. By 1900 the beck was heavily polluted, It was decided to hide much of the culvert underground in tunnels. Work on tunnel construction started in earnest in 1913, by 1939 the whole section from Mabgate to the river Aire was underground. Today this once important watercourse is largely forgotten about, it meanders out of sight, overgrown and neglected through the City.



The Victorian understanding of sewer hydraulics and culvert design was advanced by this time, self cleaning egg shapes, and channels were constructed to maintain maximum velocity and flows. The most famous of these being the Paris sewers or 'Les Egouts de Paris' The Paris sewers extend for 1,300 miles and featured in the play Les Misérables. Paris has another Paris under herself, a Paris of sewers, which has its streets, its crossings, its squares, its blind alleys, its arteries, and its circulation, which is slime, minus the human form. The Leeds underground river system might not be as complex as Paris, but it's just as fascinating to see the underside of the old City streets and bridges.

The Sheepscar/Lady beck culvert is built down between deep sided walls, there's only a few places where you can catch a glimpse of it really. It's pretty hard to work out whats above your head, or where you are in relation to the streets above. I thought it would be a good idea to document a virtual tour of the culvert. Old maps, diagrams, and archive photos are included.

The only thing i can't add is the atmosphere, the sound of running water, the drips, echoes, rumble of traffic, clattering manhole covers, and smells within the tunnels. You'll have to use your imagination for those. I'm sure you won't miss seeing the Rats though.



This 1950's shot shows Springwell works at Buslingthorpe on the left, the large factory was built as a leather works, then used as a cloth finishing and dye works. The water in the beck would be of varying colours due to the waste which this and other factories released into it.



The Meanwood beck rises at Breary Marsh near Golden Acre Park, it then travels through Adel, and the North suburbs of Leeds to Meanwood. The engineered culvert starts under the Buslingthorpe Lane bridge at Meanwood. It then travels through the Sheepscar, Mabgate and Steander areas of the City.

This aerial image shows the start of the culvert at the Buslingthorpe Lane bridge, Springwell works can be seen on the right hand side of the beck. Meanwood beck also changes it's name as it passes through the different areas of the City. It becomes Sheepscar beck when it enters the culvert at Buslingthorpe Lane, then Lady beck, and lastly it was known as Timble beck.



This old disused footbridge used to form part of a pathway that extended from Meanwood Road to Buslingthorpe Lane. Today the bridge is fenced off, the path at the back of Springwell works is so overgrown you can't even see it. The grafitti in this area always reminds me of New York, the overgrown nature of the beck, the vegetation, moss covered stones, and brightly coloured paint make an unusual, but very photogenic view.



The Sheepscar beck may only look a shallow flow of water, but sadly there has been two deaths by drowning in as many years. Given these circumstances the council have rightly fenced off access to this part of the beck. In August 2010 graffiti artists coming down here found the body of a 27 year old man lying face down in the water. The cause of death was found to be drowning, and the coroner recorded a verdict of accidental death. An exploring friend of mine found the body of the other unfortunate man in 2008. I'll add his account of events later on.

**This is a good time to highlight the many dangers that can be encountered in this place. Venturing into such places is not to be taken lightly. The moss covered stone walkways are extremely slippy in places, the risk of nasty falls is high. The walls of the culvert are tall, it isn't the easiest of places to make a quick escape should the need arise. The flow of water would rise dramitically during a sudden down pour. During heavy rain the water reaches the top of the tunnels, you would be in serious trouble in such an event. There is also the risk of noxious gases within the confines of the tunnels. And last, but no means the culvert is littered with used syringes, and is crawling with rats. The water in the culvert is almost certainly contaminated with Weils disease**



The entrance to the first underground section of culvert can be seen in the distance. This is the first place where a major change has taken place to the course of the beck. The Victorian built channels have been ripped up, and replaced by a newer concrete box tunnel under the Penraevon Industrial Estate. This tunnel was built sometime in the 1970/80's when the industrial estate was built.



I would have liked to have kept these aerial images the same angle. Unfortunately, due to the twisting nature of the beck, and not being able to fit all the underground sections into one frame, I've had to use the best rotated view available. You'll have to use the street names to get your bearings for these images.

The aerial image above shows the course the culvert takes underneath the Penraevon Industrial Estate. The next time you catch a glimpse of the beck is 530 yards away from the Barrack Street bridge (next to Sheepscar Gasometer)

Note there isn't one building sitting directly over the beck on this image. As you plot the course of the beck, it becomes evident that very little has been built directly on top of it over the years. The beck is only a few feet below the surface in parts, the tunnel structure simply would not support any significant weight.



The entrance to the 1970/80's built tunnel, note the abrupt ending of the Victorian built stone channel and walkway.



Some handy steps lead down to the flat bottomed concrete tunnel.
Although the water level was very low when I took this shot, the concentrated flow down the narrow channel is really quite strong. It only takes six inches of fast flowing water to knock a man off his feet, and two feet of moving water will sweep away a car.



This shot is taken half way down the tunnel. Although it looks relatively easy to navigate here, the tunnels are obviously pitch black, the floor is filled with trip hazard rubble. These shots are long exposures using search lights to illuminate them. It just goes to show that new is not always best. The further you go down this new tunnel, the build up of rubble and silt gets deeper. The Victorian design is far superior, it has a strong 'self cleaning' flow along it's channel.



The box culvert rejoins it's original course down the stone channel. The narrow flow of water gets deeper and speeds up once again. Silt and debris build up is minimal in these channel sections.



Out into the fresh air we get this view of the tunnel portal underneath Barrack Street.



This short 100 yard long open section is quiet photogenic with the overhanging greenery these days. Here the culvert curves nicely around the Gasometer.



There's no mistaking where you are with this dominant view of the Sheepscar Gasometer towering above you. The Autumnal sunshine made for some nice colours on this great rusting hulk.



The culvert next runs 180 yards underground before it reappears on the far side of Clay Pit Lane. The first section of tunnel is under a very old tannery (now demolished)



The old map shows the position of the tannery besides the Sheepscar Chemical works.



Very old girders and props support the remains of the tannery, nothing remains above ground of the old building today. The only clue this was a building is the bricked up window in the wall.



Once under the tannery you can see this substantial rotting timber beam along the walkway.



These chimney type flues don't give many clues to what purpose this structure served in it's day. You can see the underside of this old tunnel gives way to two newer concrete sections. The last section carries Clay Pit Lane across the beck.

It was under here I had a rather close call with a rat. I was trying to set up the camera on the tripod. I just happened to notice something move in the darkness only inches away from my knee. I just knew what it was going to be and stood up quick. I switched on the big lamp, and much to my disgust it was a great big dirty rat at my feet. I'm not sure what scared it the most, the loud expletives, or being blinded by a 3 million candle powered torch. Whatever it was, it did the trick, the rat flipped over and scurried off back down the tunnel. I dread to think if it was only thinking of taking a sniff of my knee, or seeing if it was tasty. ARGH! I've seen many Rats doing exploration before, but that one was a little too close for comfort.



The exit from the Clay Pit Lane tunnel looking back towards Meanwood. This part of the culvert used to be hid away behind E.B.Bamforth Ltd at the bottom of Clay Pit lane, Bamforths was demolished in 2008. The top of the building you can see on the right is Greenwich house on Clay Pit Lane. It's interesting to see how low down the windows are in the old walls, no doubt these were bricked up very early in the day. The water level during heavy rain would certainly have got higher and flooded the building.



You can see the short open air section of beck between Bamforths prior to demolition. The beck next travels through a 158 yard long tunnel under the car wash at the bottom of North Street.



The entrance to the North Street tunnel heading towards the City. You can see the building behind once again straddles the beck. The courtyard emerges at the side of 209 North Street, which i believe is an 'Adults private shop' I wouldn't have any idea what such a place would sell, but shady looking men clutching brown paper bags are often to be seen hurrying out of the door.



This is the subterranean view of the shot above, once underground you can see this very old buried bridge, it was built to carry North Street across the beck. A later addition brick tunnel butts up to the far end of the bridge. This bridge has been buried for so long it only appears on the 1850 map marked as 'Sheepscar bridge'



Once under the bridge you can see it has been built in two halves and extended at a later date. When North street was first built it would have only been wide enough for a horse and cart. It's interesting to see these three huge pipes emerge from under the City streets.



The 1850 map is the only map to have the bridge marked as Sheepscar bridge. Numerous wooden footbridges once straddled the beck in this area.



This brick arched tunnel is on the far side of Sheepscar bridge and was built in 1928. This section is directly under the car wash at the bottom of North Street. I presume the water running into the tunnel comes from the car wash too.



This April 1928 shot shows the same tunnel under construction. Timber arches were sat in place to form a temporary arch for the brickwork to sit on. The building at the side was Geo Calvert Edible Fat Melters which was on Vulcan Street. Vulcan Street no longer exists (the Plumb Centre on North Street now stands on that spot)



Archive Photo of a double decker bus which has plunged 20 feet from Sheepscar Street South into the Beck in January 1956. The West Yorkshire Road Car bus was on its way to Harrogate with 50 passengers when it hit a bollard and veered off the road, thankfully there was no fatalities. For the record the West Yorkshire bus in the accident was DX14. It was only a few months old at the time and therefore avoided scrapping, being returned to Bristol and Eastern Coachworks for extensive repairs. Thanks to Blakey for the bus info.



2010 shot of the North Street tunnel portal minus double decker bus.



The next open section runs at the side of Sheepscar Street South.



The beck next travels under Sheepscar Street South, and emerges in a short open section near to the New Roscoe. The smaller Gipton beck (marked in blue) meets Sheepscar beck at this point. At one time a mill pond used to stand where the blue car showroom is on Benson Street/Cross Stamford Street (see map below)



The 1893 map shows the position of the mill pond. Part of Gipton beck was diverted around the mill pond, it then ran through a series of weirs parallel to Benson Street and emptied into Sheepscar beck.



This is the disused outfall of the old mill pond, these days this tunnel only travels to the far side of the road and comes to a dead end. The Gipton beck was rebuilt in 1931, it would be safe to say this is when the flow of water to this outfall would have been stopped.



I've included this 2007 shot because the old shoe works has since been demolished. Benson Street bridge can be seen in the distance. This bridge was built in 1846 according to the date stone.    



Around the corner we come to this skew bridge built in 1929 when the new road layout was created. The lush moss growth in this area almost resembles a lawn.



Travelling along the beck it becomes apparent the retaining walls are from vastly different eras and materials. Large parts of the structure have been undermined by high water levels rushing along it. The 1947 archive shot shows the collapsed wall next to Sheepscar Street bridge. The Back to backs in view were demolished in the late 1960's and early 70's. The 2010 shot shows the repaired wall, the roof of the New Roscoe now replaces the old houses.



Shots from 1929 showing the bridge under construction, note the angled concrete kicking blocks to form the skew of the brickwork. I think it almost resembles a huge Toblerone. Four course of bricks formed the tunnel roof, a layer of concrete spread on top to bind, and waterproof it. I must say the tunnels were very well built, there is no signs of any bad water ingress in any of the tunnels.



Underneath the bridge you can see the angled kicking blocks close at hand, a short corrugated section of tunnel butts up to the older road bridge. The corrugated tunnel runs through the garden of the New Roscoe. I was somewhat surprised to see that under here was someones home on my last visit. A sleeping bag was lying along the walkway, clothes were draped along a makeshift washing line. I was glad the resident wasn't home at the time.



On the left is a shot from 1947 showing another collapsed retaining wall. This is where the Sheepscar and Gipton beck meet near the Roscoe. The houses in view are on Bristol Street and were built right up to the beck. The 2010 shot shows the new concrete and brick retaining walls to good effect.



I've often wondered what buildings stood on this small triangle piece of land above the beck.



This 1959 photo of 19 Cross Stamford Street answers the question nicely, here we can see a grocers and sweet shop belonging to Johnson and Openshaw. Bristol Street bridge across Gipton beck is visible.



Back below the streets we see the small bridge that carried Bristol Street across the beck. Here a concrete channel has been constructed to carry the flow. Parts of the stonework resemble a garden rockery in places. The flow may only look a trickle here, but i have seen this entire arch disappear under water during heavy rain.



This is a view of Gipton beck just past the old Newton Picture house on Cross Stamford Street. You can see the beck go underneath Benson Street, it then travels underground towards Roundhay Road. The next time this beck comes out into the open is in someones back garden on Gledhow Valley Road. Gipton beck originates from the manmade lake in Gledhow Valley woods. I was surprised to find out this culvert construction dates as far back as 1931. There doesn't appear to be much of interest photography wise up this culvert. I ventured around 400 yards in, I could see nothing more than a boring concrete tunnel ahead in the beam of a search light. The headroom is low, and i didn't fancy a prolonged stoop very much that day. The shallow flow of water is also surprising, there certainly appears to be more enters the lake from Gledhow beck which feeds it.



These two shots from 1931 show the culvert during and after construction work.


Photo © Oliver Henkel

This archive shot shows the closed Gaiety pub on Roundhay Road prior to demolition. You can see the pub was actually built in two halves on this shot. The Gaiety was designed with a central archway under which the Gipton beck ran. The two sides of the building was linked by a bridge which housed one of the 5 bars. In later years the pub became a notorious hot spot for drugs and prostitution, a far cry from the days when actor Stephen Lewis, 'Blakey' in the T.V. situation comedy 'On The Buses' pulled the first pint in December 1972.

You can still plot the old course of the open beck past the Gaiety on Google Earth. The retaining walls are still visible in the back gardens between Markham Avenue and Hilltop Mount.

The Gaiety pub isn't the only building to be built in two halves and linked by a bridge, a much larger one exists in the centre of town. I've included that in the next section when the beck becomes the Lady beck.

Many thanks to Oliver for kindly letting me use his photo here.
Photo from the Leodis website here
http://www.leodis.net/display.aspx?resourceIdentifier=200673_161482&DISPLAY=FULL
                                                                                                                                        
My flickr pictures are here
http://www.flickr.com/photos/phill_dvsn/

Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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Phill_dvsn
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Location:
Leeds
Joined on:
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 02:51:23.  


*Lady beck*
Cross Stamford Street-Kirkgate



Photo taken from the Cross Stamford Street bridge looking down into the beck. The beck is now the Lady beck at this point. I don't think many people would know where the Newton area of Leeds was if you were to ask them today, but that is what this area was called up until the 1960's. The houses were demolished and replaced with industrial units. Newton was home to the first Jewish community in Leeds. Many clothing manufacturers, and tailoring businesses sprung up in the area.    

You can see the remains of the old buildings that once stood here, the bricked up windows in the wall on the right used to belong to Providence works. The works was a clothing manufacturer prior to demolition. Houses on Telephone Row, Terrace and Place stood next to the beck on the left. The top of Lincoln Green flats can be seen in the distance.



A 1931 shot showing a recently repaired brick wall after floods. The house is on Telephone Row. The 2010 shot shows the wall has once again collapsed. I saw the rubble from this collapse in the beck after heavy rain in 2008. The window ledge is the only reminder that this used to be someones home.

The short tunnel entrance underneath Cross Stamford Street towards the New Roscoe can be seen. It was here that an exploring friend of mine found the body of a dead man in 2008. I'll add his version of events.

''The day started off OK. I dropped my car off at a large garage, near the Royal Armouries in Leeds, to have its MOT and then walked home. I planned to walk back this afternoon to pick it up. Since I live near the Meanwood beck, I thought it would be a good idea to do a solo trip through Masticator, come out opposite the armouries and just cross the river and collect the car.
The trip started ok, and I got into the first underground section at 2.30pm. After the 30 hours of rain, that we had last weekend, the water level was higher than on our previous visit, back in June.
Despite bits of high water and a few unseen underwater piles of rubble, I had no problems. After taking photographs of the graffiti, near the Roscoe pub, I went into the culvert which goes under the roundabout at the end of Regent Street. Rubble had built up in the middle and there was what seemed to a pile of rags on top of it. When I got closer I realised it was the body of a man. It scared me S***less. It wasn't an urban explorer. I phoned 999 and there were loads of police cars and an ambulance there within minutes.

I've spent the rest of the afternoon in a police station, giving a statement. Fortunately, the detective was very sympathetic towards urban exploration. I did have to hand over the memory card from my camera, so there are no photographs to post. There were no photographs of the body.

This is a reminder to us all that underground places with water are dangerous places. Be careful, especially when doing solo trips!!



The beck next travels underneath this 57 yard long tunnel. The Empire Shoe works stood above here according to old maps. The works was extended and straddled the beck sometime in the 1930's.



Under the tunnel you can see the retaining wall on the right is noticeably older than the 1930's extension on the left. The shoe factory above has since been demolished and is used as a car park these days.



Exit from the tunnel with the remains of a bricked up window visible.



Looking in the opposite direction as the beck starts to turn towards the bridge on Skinner lane. The dilapidated building you can see is marked off on old maps as a cinema. I was a little surprised to see this was a cinema, usually cinemas have very few windows in them. The building has been renovated since i took this shot in 2007. The back of the building on the right is Milfords Builders Merchants.

Edit. The cinema was the Olympia Picture Hall on Cherry Row. It was a cinema from 1912 to 1934. Thanks to Drapsey for the info.



Aerial image showing my favourite part of the beck as it twists and turns around, and under the old Mills of Mabgate. The beck is eerie quiet in this section, it feels a very lonely place to say it's such a busy area in the streets above.



The 1933 map shows Providence works and Empire shoe works standing over the beck. The cinema is also clearly marked. A margarine factory (since demolished) also straddled the beck on the other side of Skinner lane. C.C.S stands for 'Center of covered stream' on O.S maps.



This 1930's aerial image shows just how heavily built up and industrial the area was. You can clearly see how the Margarine factory was built over the beck, the noticeable curve in the culvert was due to a circular mill pond that stood above the beck here. By the 1930's the mill pond had disappeared off the map altogether.



The back of Skinner lane bridge reveals old props that once held up a two story building connected to the Margarine factory. I'm amazed at the higgledy Piggledy nature they built these structures. Bricks built on top of beams and vice versa. The remains of the doorway leading onto Skinner lane can be seen in the old wall.



Shots from underneath the bridge and factory in 1931 show how it used to be. The brickwork built into the girder can be seen on the left hand photo. The shot on the right shows girders were built across the beck at the end of the factory. The girders appear to be holding up masses of pipe work.



The old archive photographs are an invaluable record of what things were. I would have had no idea what the purpose of these cut girders was without them. I was glad they were cut as it saved a crawl under them.



Looking downstream shows how the retaining walls have been built up recently. I guess a lot of the original stonework was damaged when the factory across the beck was demolished. The curve for the mill pond is also clear to see from this angle. The newly built Regent House Business Center now replaces the Margarine factory.

Further down on the left you can just make out another beck joins the flow. This is one of Leeds ancient, and forgotten streams. This is Stoney Rock beck that rises near Compton Road library in Harehills. The 1847 map shows a river called Stoney Rock beck travel along the south-east boundary of Becketts Street Cemetery in open fields, which by 1890 had been covered over by Stoney Rock Lane and adjacent brickworks.



Today this part of Stoney Rock beck is dry, the course of the beck has been diverted along a new culvert running straight under Lincoln Green Road. The beck then joins Lady beck under Skinner lane bridge. The beck has traveled underground for so long it hasn't featured on any map since 1847.



Aerial image showing one of the most complex parts of Lady beck. The culvert has a sharp dog leg turn before it travels under the mills around Mabgate. I must admit i found the reason for this a bit confusing until i looked at the old maps. You can see the beck comes out into the open sandwiched between the old mills, then it turns sharply underground before emerging under Hope Road bridge.



Rotated aerial shot showing the sharp dog leg section to good effect.



No wonder this area is confusing, the amount of different building materials built up over the years is staggering. Patches of brickwork, old girders, and stonework make for an odd sight. I've included a few maps below from 1850, these show the area before the stone channel was built. The maps indicate that the beck also ran under the bricked up girder you can see on the left. The flow of this goit would have been controlled by a Leat, or sluice Gate when water was needed for the mills. The map shows that an oil mill, and flax mill were using this water supply. It appears this goit was blocked off, and out of use by the time the 1908 map was published.



Looking back in the opposite direction, a piece of 'Stranglers' 1980's retro graffiti still adorns the brick wall.



A 1947 shot showing the huge girder that carried the buildings across the weir. The 2010 shot has a little more greenery growing out of the walls.



This weir can be traced as far back as 1850. The original course of the beck also ran straight ahead as can be seen on the map below. It's interesting to note the newer stone retaining built on top of the old one, the map below states 'This area liable to floods' The water level would need to be very high to breach the beck here today.



The 1850 map shows the original course of the beck stating 'The course of Mabgate beck when the boundaries of the ward were established'



A little further down from the weir the culvert filters down this narrow 85 yard long tunnel with walkways either side. The old map shows a 'cistern' located along this left hand side wall, I presume this was some kind of water supply tank for Byron Street Mills above.



Here we can see where the oil mill goit rejoined Lady beck. The outfall has been blocked off with a low concrete wall.



Underneath Mabgate is without a doubt the oldest part of Victorian Leeds. It's pretty impossible to work out how everything worked in days gone by, but i presume the blocked off archway in the far wall would have been where the cistern, or supply tank would have been situated.



Looking inside the oil mill goit you can see the disused outflow. The 1850 map shows a flax mill was built directly above here.



This brick tunnel seems to be a later addition looking at the map below. It shows a short section was once in the open with a wooden footbridge crossing. The old stonework and newer brickwork are a good indication where the flax mill stood above.



The 1850 map shows how the beck feed the goit under the oil mill and ran towards the flax mill. The position of the cistern for Byron Street mill is clearly marked. It certainly corresponds with the blocked off archway on my picture.



Looking out of the tunnel to the open section between Byron Street Mill and Hope Foundry.



This concrete retaining wall is the most obvious sign of flood repair work along the whole of the beck. A large section of this wall collapsed into the beck in 1955.



Two shots taken in 1955 show the clear up work underway, and the top of the newly built retaining wall from above. It's interesting to see Byron Street mills looked as dilapidated then as it does today.



Taken a little further down gives us this view, this is about as close Leeds gets to resembling the Shambles in York.



Shot taken in 2008 looking in the opposite direction, the white building built across the beck is at the back of K.D Bros Auto Brakes on Hope Road. I love the ramshackle appearance of these buildings in this section, there aren't many of these that have escaped the bulldozer around Leeds. You can see the beck turns sharply under K.D Bros then heads for Hope Road bridge.



This area feels eerie quiet, and certainly the most secluded part of the beck.



Back out into the open is the rather ornate Hope Road bridge. This bridge dates back to around 1900, even though the Victorians were using huge girders for bridge building at this time, they still opted to strengthen the structure with the age old method of brick arch construction.



Just behind the Mabgate pub the beck can be seen for the last time. Here it travels underground for 0.6 miles through twisting tunnels. The next time we will see daylight is at the river Aire opposite the Royal Armouries, Clarence Dock. The stonework above this tunnel looks positively ancient, note the angled bricks built into the stonework from an even earlier era.



One of Leeds great urban myths is the alleged tunnel from the Parish church that links the Palace pub and emerges in the cellar of the Mabgate pub. This was supposed to have been built by the priests so they could visit the ladies of the night in secret, and no doubt have a few pints for good measure. The Mabgate area of the City was a notorious red light area in days gone by, it is said the name 'Mab' was an insult in Shakespeare’s time because it was synonymous with a prostitute. A great story if it were true, but sadly the only tunnel at the back of the Mabgate is the Lady beck, which by coincidence does run within 40 yards of the Palace pub. I can't see the amorous priests venturing along that tunnel in search of ladies of ill repute myself.



I've marked some of my shots below and highlighted them on the map as A, B, C and D to give you an idea where they are above ground. This aerial image plots the course of the beck from the Mabgate pub, along Eastgate, there it runs under the left hand side of the Rotunda garage (Arthur Aaron statue) and then Millgarth Police station. The culvert seems to meander from a straight line for no apparent reason in places, but once you look at the old maps you can see it was built around the existing warehouses and mills.



The exact course of the culvert marked on the 1933 map. The warehouses that made the curve in the beck have been replaced with the New York Road flyover (and letterbox) Eastgate has just been built, and the road layout resembles pretty much what we see today by this time.



This shot shows the Mabgate pub and tunnel construction in 1914, It's easy to see from this view where the legend of the secret priests tunnel comes from. The whole Meanwood beck culvert is a real patchwork of different construction added over the years. The earliest beck covering work I can find is 1908. The bridge you can see in the distance carries Bell Street across the beck.

It's interesting to see they were using concrete at this early date. The concrete walls were formed with an angled top either side for the brick arched roof to sit on. They seemed to have used the same method of construction along the beck until 1937. It looks like temporary railway track has been laid to help move materials in tubs on the left hand side of the beck.



Shot A.
This shot is taken just a bit further down than the archive photo above. The brickwork is in excellent condition considering it's nearly 100 years old. You can just see the stonework of Bell Street bridge in the distance.

In the Victorian era the Lady beck was known as the 'Ganges of Lady lane' The beck was notorious for the waste and effluent that was discharged into it from the factories, markets, abbatoirs, and the human waste from areas of housing which had no proper sanitation. Quarry Hill and Mabgate being amongst the worst. It was later known that this had contributed to the deadly outbreaks of Typhoid and Cholera that ravaged these areas periodically.



Shot B.
Another place you can catch a glimpse of the underside of the City infrastructure is under the New York Road flyover. This huge pipe makes for an unusual view bursting into the tunnel. The top of the tunnel under Eastgate is the shallowest part of the culvert, the top of the tunnel is only 400mm below ground level. That's according to a Leeds City Council culvert survey, and flood risk assessment report.



Shot C.
These old overflow chutes are to be found just before the Arthur Aaron roundabout. They don't look to be be operational these days judging by the bolt fixings in the floor. I have to admit i find this last tunnel a pretty bleak place to be.



Lots of various side passages run into the beck, some look more inviting to explore than others. This confined tunnel is not a good place for your exploring partner following you to let you know he's got himself stuck!



Traveling underneath Eastgate the tunnel travels right underneath Millgarth Police station. These architect plans show the exact location of the tunnel.





Here you can clearly see the odd design of Millgarth, daylight is clearly visible in the middle section. Millgarth has a limited ground floor footprint because it straddles the Lady beck. In effect the upper floors over the beck is like a bridge supported by two pillars.



Close up of the huge girders that supports the building over the beck.

Millgarth was home to the Yorkshire Ripper incident room in the 1970's. The six year investigation generated so much paperwork the floor had to be reinforced because of fears it might collapse.
I used to find this puzzling for such a new structure. It isn't until you find out about the tunnel underneath that you realise why.



Chief Superintendent Jim Hobson head of the Ripper squad in the incident room. Former Chief Constable of West Yorkshire, Ronald Gregory, admitted after Sutcliffe was jailed: "We were buried under an avalanche of paperwork."



Shot D.
We are now underneath the Police station looking back towards Mabgate. This concrete section was built circa 1968-70 prior to Millgarth opening in 1976. The course of the beck has been altered in this area over the years. You can usually tell which areas have been diverted, the brick lined channel replacing the older stone channel is a good clue that this is a later diversion.



Here the Millgarth tunnel butts up to the older tunnel that travels under the bus station. The brick lined tunnels typically measure 6 metres wide x 3 metres high and are relatively easy to navigate along the walkways.



The photo on the left shows beck covering work around the Dyer Street and Millgarth area in 1935. This view is looking back towards Mabgate, Eastgate Rotunda garage can be seen in the distance. Today Millgarth Police station would block out this view.

The shot on the left shows beck diversion work taking place in 1913. You can clearly see the difference between the new brick lined channel, and the older stone culvert before there joined together. This shot is taken further down where the bus station now stands. I've marked this area on the 1921 map below with an X.



The next section of beck between Millgarth, the bus station, and railway embankment is pretty hard to date. When the majority of the slums had been cleared around here, the course of the culvert was altered circa 1913. Most of the work to put the culvert underground was undertaken from 1929-1937. By 1937 the whole section of this beck ran underground and still forms the present day layout.

In 2010 the proposed Eastgate and Harewood Quarter development would include diverting the Lady beck away from Millgarth and the bus station. According to the architect Millgarth is problematic due to the Lady Beck culvert. The culvert bisects the site (N-S) and the police station is effectively built with two legs straddling the beck. Issues with the culvert/Environment Agency requirements would have meant changes to the original master plan even had the recession not intervened. The culvert would be rerouted under St Peters Street and Eastgate. Wider concrete sections would be built to help alleviate flood potential further upstream. The downside would be much of the Victorian culvert would be ripped up forever. I wait to see if the development ever gets off the ground.



This map shows the course of the beck prior to the 1930's diversion work. I've marked todays course of the culvert in black.



Just past Millgarth and the Dyer Street area, this 1934 shot shows the new curved course of the beck as it heads towards St Peters Street and the railway embankment.



Archive shot from 1937 showing beck covering work around York Street bridge. This would be the last time you would to see this bridge above ground once work was complete, but you can still see it when down in the tunnel. These buried bridges are a great clue to where you are exactly when your underneath the City streets.



Looking back in the opposite direction you can see the concrete walls under construction on the left hand shot, and the brick arched tunnel roof being constructed on the right.



What a difference a year makes. It seems the majority of the 1937 beck covering work along St Peters Street was in preparation for the new bus station. Leeds Central bus station opened in 1938, and the nearby Quarry Hill flats would be open in 1939. This area was now totally transformed from one of the worst slum areas of the City.



Another area where the beck is confusing at first is underneath the railway embankment. I hadn't realised that house and yards stood either side of the railway in days gone by, it gives the impression the beck had been diverted considerably, when infact it hasn't.

The shot on the left shows houses on the corner of York Street, and Duke Street prior to demolition in 1907. You can see the beck ran in the open behind these buildings on the map below. The shot on the left is the same location, and was taken in 1931 prior to road improvements, the beck is hidden underground by this time.



The year is 1908, and the houses are demolished. Here we can see work underway to put this section of beck underground. The shot on the left shows girders being fitted to form the concrete roof, you can see these girders once inside the tunnel to this day.



Here we can see evidence the railway wall was built up after tunnel construction. I think it would be safe to say you wouldn't need to dig down very far to hit the tunnel roof here, the added soil to cover the tunnel, and higher ground level would be the reason this wall has been built taller in my opinion.




Attention to detail on these old maps is second to none. Here we get a good idea of how it looked before the beck went underground. You really wouldn't have any idea this area was so built up looking at it today. Another confusing thing are the modern day road layouts, note how Duke Street passes underneath one railway arch only, today four arches are open to traffic, and one for pedestrians. Also note that Timble bridge on Kirkgate is marked, another old bridge of Leeds to be found when venturing underground.



A 1908 shot showing the girders in place ready for the concrete roof to be added. The curve at the far end is where the beck travels under the bus station. That section is still in the open at this time, it would be covered over in phases between 1929, and 1937. The stone arch visible is the York Road bridge.



The exact same location 102 years later, note the underside of the concrete girders visible. The stonework of the York Street bridge can be seen sandwiched between the later addition brick tunnel.



Were now stood on the Parish church side of the Leeds-York railway line. This barrel shaped brick structure is the biggest part of the tunnel system, it travels directly under the railway embankment. Once under here you can feel the tunnel vibrate, the noise of trains rumble loud over head. A noise that can be a little unsettling until you realise what it is.



A little further down we come to this concrete section built in 1939. You can just see the brickwork under the railway at the far end. This last section of culvert from the railway embankment, to the river was put underground between 1937 and complete by 1939. It still forms the same layout we have today.

Notice the varying tide marks along the wall where water levels frequently reach, the flow rises fast during heavy rain. It might be fine and sunny when you enter the culvert. But without a doubt it would be game over if you were caught by a sudden down pour!



Above ground shot taken in 1939 showing the tunnel roof under construction. The Palace pub, and Parish church are visible behind the hoarding. This area is just before Timble bridge on Kirkgate, you can see the beck splits in two to travel under the bridge at this point.



Out of sight, and out of mind. Who would know what was under their feet here? I love piecing together these bits of hidden Leeds.



The exact same location as above, but now were below the streets of Leeds. Here we can see the beck split in two, and the stone arches of old Timble bridge. A considerable amount of debris has built up and damned the flow of water down the left hand tunnel. This was a blessing in disguise really, you can see the headroom is very low here, it's an awkward stoop along the walkways. It gave us the opportunity to traverse the dry channel. The Lady beck becomes Timble beck on the other side of the bridge.

In 2006 an intensive survey was undertaken of the Lady beck on behalf of Leeds City Council. It concluded the culvert was in good order and could self clean effectively, although there was evidence that debris had built up on a central column where the culvert divides. This section has been blocked on the six occasions I've ventured down here also.



Here's the layout of the beck prior to the 1930's culvert alterations. You can see the beck split in two under Timble bridge, and here's where things start to look a little confusing again. One part of the beck headed East towards East Street and Steander Foundry. The second split ran towards Nether Mills, it traversed a series of weirs and emptied into the Aire more or less where it does today.



Present day aerial image showing the exact course the beck takes today. Once again you can see nothing is built across the beck, the car park between the apartment buildings on the riverside being a good clue where the beck runs underneath.

*You can see that four railway arches are open to traffic today, compared with one in 1907. This gives the illusion the course of the beck has changed, when in fact it hasn't moved*

                                                                                                        
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 02:52:59.  


*Timble beck*
Kirkgate-River Aire.



Were now stood in the dry channel of Timble beck looking back towards the blockage, the stonework of Timble bridge can clearly be seen. This bridge has been hid out of view since 1938. An exact same replica tunnel runs parallel with this one on the left. This channel can be pretty lethal to walk on in places, slippery is an understatement.



Here we can just see Timble bridge about to be buried forever, the shot on the left shows construction of the culvert walls in 1937, the top of the bridge arches are visible. My shot above was taken in the right hand side culvert in roughly the same area. The shot on the right shows the concrete roof under construction in 1938. You can see why they abandoned the brick lined tunnels in this area, the roof of the tunnel is literally a foot below the surface of the street. Only reinforced concrete would be strong enough in these circumstances. The railway viaduct, and top of Munro House can be seen in the distance.

It seems they struggled with the levels of the culvert in this area a bit, there isn't much of a fall between here and the river to maintain a good flow of water. I presume that's why they split the culvert into two sections at this point. In fact, the river doesn't need to be very high to stop the beck flowing into it altogether.



Shots from 1937 and 1938 showing culvert channel, and roof construction taking place. The beck is seen curving away from the Palace pub to head underneath East Street. The shot on the left shows the course of the older Victorian culvert. Once the new tunnels were complete, that would have been blocked off, and filled in.



Taken in 1938, this shot shows the culvert just before it empties into the river. The buildings behind are on East Street, none of those buildings survive today. The curve of the culvert from East Street is clear to see. The car park for the riverside apartments stands on this spot today.



Inside the 1938 built culvert under East Street, this is just before it curves towards the river. The water pouring in was making a very strange gulping noise at the time.



Daylight and fresh air at last!
This is the end of our underground journey that started in Meanwood, a journey as the crow flies of 1.66 miles.

*You can see the river doesn't need to rise much to stop the flow of the beck. According to Leeds City Council, there is a rapid increase in flow rate along the beck during heavy rain, the culvert runs frequently near capacity. The Lady beck reacts rapidly to rainfall due to it's hard surface urban environment. The Lady beck and river levels respond differently to rainfall. Lady beck reaches peak levels within hours, but due to the rivers large catchment area it doesn't peak until several days later. It is unlikely the two peak levels will ever coincide. I guess that's little comfort for the residents, and business's in this area who have suffered several bad floods already*



View of the outfall and Crown Point bridge in the distance.



Steander, another part of old Leeds that has vanished off the Leeds map. Like Newtown, I think must people would struggle to tell you where it was these days. Steander is a Norse word that means 'A stoney place' Today this Steander is to be found in a most unusual place.



Passed by thousands of motorists everyday, but noticed by few. Here's a blast from Leeds forgotten past. This is the only surviving bridge from the East Street/Timble beck. The eagle eyed can spot it between some bushes in the middle of a traffic island. The traffic island in question is next to Trinity One on East Street.



Comparison shots from 1950 and 2010 show the position of East Street bridge. The 1950 photo shows a new access to the beck has been created. It's interesting to see the building opposite has had an extra floor added since. Note the painted adverts on the gable end of the building next door. You could still see one of these ghost ads from yesteryear the last time i looked.



View of East Street bridge showing the newly created access to the beck. It looks like this access was for beck repair work only. A ladder is in place, and also a timber type shute controlling the flow of water. I can't find a date when this section of beck was abandoned, looking at the demolition taking place behind, and the work going on in the beck, it's possible it wasn't long after these shots were taken. I would be grateful to find out if anyone knows.



A wet day in May 1938 shows the bridge looking in the opposite direction. The visible chimneys belong to Steander Foundries. Today the new Trinity One building stands on this spot.

I hope you enjoyed this subterranean tour of Leeds Regular Smiley                        
My flickr pictures are here
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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yorkiesknob
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 08:16:37.  


Great work Phil, top shelf all the way.
As I'm in the construction game and involved in many new large box culvert installations, the old constructions photos are of a great interest to me. Great brickwork back in them days ,you would be hard pressed to find that kind of workmanship nowadays.

Keep up the good work Phil, and look forward to more of the same in 2011 .

Meery Christmas to you and all the best for 2011

Cheers Yorkie Brisbane very wet / 25c

Where there's muck there's money. Where there's money there's a fiddle. 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 08:18:51.  


And a Merry Christmas to you good sir, and all the other Secret Leeds guys from me.

Cheers everyone Regular Smiley    
My flickr pictures are here
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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jim
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 09:18:06.  


Hi Phill, marvellous thread, and a phenomenal amount of work.

I notice from the 1847 Godfrey map that the present outfall route into the river was then identified as "mill race", implying that the now abandoned Steander/Timble Beck route was the original outfall. Both were heavily surrounded by mills, dyeworks, and other concerns. There must have been a fair number of waterwheels driven by the watercourses, giving purpose to the weirs you describe.

The 1906 Godfrey map marks part of the area enclosed by the two routes as "Fearn's Island, which might be due to that enclosure.
 
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gbdlufc
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 09:51:24.  


What a great collection of pictures, nice one. Brought back many memories as we used to play in and around all the Mabgate area.
 
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chameleon
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 14:03:04.  


Nice to see it all together in one place phill and a lot of new stuff too - can always tell when you're upto summ'at - goes very quiet with an odd cryptic comment now and again!!

Your earlier concerns - provided people post NEW MESSAGES rather than 'quote' to comment, I don't think space will be a problemRegular Smiley

Anything simple planned for tomorrow like excavating the Pennines again to pass the time, hmm? Wink
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Leodian
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 14:41:00.  


That is a superb exploration and historical set Phil. I was in the North Street/Sheepscar and Mabgate areas just a few days back and I looked at the exposed parts there and saw some of the views you have taken photos of.

I bet you were very relieved when the set loaded OK into the SL website. I've not yet fathomed out how to download more than one photo in a single message! It's good that you are prepared to venture into the underground parts of the beck and record the scenes, as I would not dare do so (it does not though seem to bother the graffiti artists!).    
 
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beast
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 16:10:24.  


thats a superb set of photos. I remember the section over East Street at Steander quite well. Near Battys brushworks and the Waterloo pub, and I was having a look at the Mabgate/Hope Rd section the other day.
Hopefully in Spring next year a few of us are going to explore it all setting off from Meanwood.
 
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chameleon
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 16:23:14.  


beast wrote:
thats a superb set of photos. I remember the section over East Street at Steander quite well. Near Battys brushworks and the Waterloo pub, and I was having a look at the Mabgate/Hope Rd section the other day.
Hopefully in Spring next year a few of us are going to explore it all setting off from Meanwood.


Regular Smiley
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Leodian
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 18:10:34.  


I believe there are plans to demolish (or possibly redevelop) the Millgarth Poilce Station as part of the Eastgate/Harewood Quarter project, so I wonder if there will need to be changes to the tunnel under there?
 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 18:38:25.  


Thanks for the good feedback guys Regular Smiley

@ Jim. Yes the the Steander course was the main outfall into the river according to the maps and archive photos i've come across researching this. Infact the area around Fearns Island you mention doesn't resemble a beck at all. A picture how it looked just past the East Street bridge can be seen here
http://www.leodis.net/display.aspx?resourceIdentifier=8232

@gbdlufc. Glad you enjoyed it and it rekindled some childhood memories for you Regular Smiley

@ Chameleon. Yes it is nice to be able to scroll down and read the whole thing in one go. I was just a little concerned the page may be slow to load with too much data on it, it seems ok though.
No big explores planned for the Christmas period, just family visits and putting the feet up time for me.

@ Leodian. Yes apparently the Millgarth site is a bit of a pain for the Eastgate planners. These are the words from the Architect himself.

Quote.

The Millgarth site is problematic due to the Lady Beck culvert. The culvert bisects the site (N-S) and the police station is effectively built with two legs straddling the beck. This makes the site inapropriate for retail and I suggest it would be better divided into separate plots either side of the culvert used for hotel/office.

Issues with the culvert/Environment Agency requirements would have meant changes to the original masterplan even had the recession not intervened.        
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Leodian
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 19:03:06.  


That parts built in Victorian times still survive shows they must have been built well. I wonder if any Victorian graffiti or at least names of builders still survive enough to be made out? Probably not, but you never know.
 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 19:07:40.  


Leodian wrote:
That parts built in Victorian times still survive shows they must have been built well. I wonder if any Victorian graffiti or at least names of builders still survive enough to be made out? Probably not, but you never know.

The oldest grafitti down there was the 1980's Stranglers i'm afraid Regular Smiley
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 19:30:12.  


Here's some interesting information on the beck
http://www.leeds.gov.uk/files/2006/week35/inter__5e727b5a-23a2-48e0-8762-b3093851a478_b26e1014-7acb-4bb3-a76b-43d173994131.pdf    
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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PC - Dublin
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 20:17:24.  


An excellent "tour de force" again from Phill. I love the way the comparisons are made using older ordnance survey maps and also with present day aerial photos. There is a tremendous amount of work gone into the preparation of this thread and Secret Leeds is fabulous for threads like this.

The designers of the various culverts had a great understanding of "dry weather flows" which were catered for in the bottom channel, whereas the flood flows were catered throughout the rest of the culvert cross sectional area. This is in stark contrast to the reinforced concrete rectangular box culverts being constructed today which use the complete width of the channel for all flows.

Phill,.... a book??

PC
 
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drapesy
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 20:22:35.  


Brilliant work as ever Phill - many thanks
Incidentally the Cinema shown on the 1933 map[about a third of the way down this page of the thread] was the 'Olympia Picture Hall' on Cherry Row. It was a cinema from 1912 to 1934, according to my trusty copy of 'Preedy'
The building still exists - I'll try to get some photos, wonder if theres any evidence left of its time as a cinema?
there are 10 types of people in the world. Those that understand ternary, those that don't and those that think this a joke about the binary system.

 
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keyholekate
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# Posted on: 24-Dec-2010 22:58:26.  


Your projects are outstanding.Loved EVERY one of them,you should be in publishing or TV.You remind me of that chap on ITV who did an interesting programme with a theme. . .cant remember his name. . .he was an oldish chap,maybe he travelled on a bike discovering Yorkshire?A long time ago but a great programme.
 
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buffaloskinner
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 00:14:54.  


Another classic Mr D, its a while since I watched the video version, but I think I prefer the walk and talk version.

Now where is that scratch and smell card .............


Is this the end of the story ...
or the beginning of a legend?
 
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Brunel
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 01:22:47.  


Should be published, or submitted to a University.

Perhaps a D.Phil.............could be awarded.
 
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BLAKEY
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 11:13:46.  


As others have already acknowledged Phil, this is an incredibly interesting and extensive commendable work and we can't thank you enough for it. Its shown me an enormous amount of information that I knew little or nothing about, despite having walked above the subjects described and illustrated for seven decades !!
Just in passing - the West Yorkshire bus in the accident, DX14, was only a few months old at the time and therefore avoided scrapping, being returned to Bristol and Eastern Coachworks for extensive repairs, but even so it must have been a "borderline" insurance matter.
There's nothing like keeping the past alive - it makes us relieved to reflect that any bad times have gone, and happy to relive all the joyful and fascinating experiences of our own and other folks' earlier days. 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 12:06:03.  


@ csnosi, gald you liked it mate Regular Smiley

@ PC - Dublin, your right, the Victorians were very advanced with there building knowledge, the use of the pre-formed concrete kicking blocks for example. The old Victorian channel is far superior at self cleaning than the modern box culvert was.

@ Drapsey, thanks for the info about the cinema. I tried to find out what it was called with no success. I've added it to the story.

I doubt there's any signs of the cinema to be honest. The place has recently been renovated. It's possible there Student flats judging by the noise i heard coming from there. The builders were actually replacing the very last window when i was down in the culvert. One of them shouts 'Hey mate, what you doing down there? I shouted back, why what are you doing up there? Then i just strolled off through the tunnel Regular Smiley

@ Kate, thanks very much, glad you enjoy them.
The guy on the bike was Adam Hart Davis. I used to enjoy his programmes too, but i'm not sure about the Yellow and Pink cycling outfits he wore.

@ buffaloskinner, thanks mate.

@ Brunel, I like the sound of the university thing, is that phill.d P.H.D perchance?
Cheers!

@ Blakey, thanks Blakey, I always enjoy your 'on the busses' story telling too. Thanks for the info on the bus. Like Drapseys snippet of info, i've added it to the story. Feedback like this is great for added interest.

Thanks everyone!        
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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Brandy
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 12:29:49.  


Mate your a breath of fresh air.We need to stop all
this bickering and get back to what we all do best.
Well i say 'all' what i mean is you lot with a sprinkling
of my incoherent ramblings lol.
To tell you the truth i was starting to get a little bit sick
of it all what with the episode last month.
But its stuff like this and the stuff on the mining
thread(GT+Parksider+ PC Dublin)that make me want
to keep going with the site.
Also CNOSNI with his tireless Family History searches,a true
credit to the site.
And BLAKEY and his oracle of
transport(still waiting for that book BLAKEY LOL) and not
forgetting Drapesy with his INCREDIBLE knowledge on public
houses both past and present lol.
And the right dis-honourable reverend of the voodoo moon Steve Jones TOP MAN!
The list goes on and on but what im trying to say really
is that the site as got much much more good going for
it than bad.
Its just a shame when the bickering starts and then one
person says one thing then someone says something
else and before you know it people have fallen out.
Its no good arguing and falling out so lets(for the good
of the site)banish all the bull$hit and get back to basics.

ps/I forgot the mention The Chameleon, Secret Leeds answer
to Kofi annan. A credit to world peace and cross gatesRegular Smiley

So anyway's that been said, i hope you all have
a very merry Christmas and a peaceful prosperous new year.

Peace & Respect

Sean.    
There are only 10 types of people in the world -
those who understand binary, and those that don't.
 
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Phill_dvsn
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# Posted on: 25-Dec-2010 12:38:49.  


Haha. Glad you made a Christmas day appearence Brandy, even if you've had a little tipple #Hic#
You have a great Christmas mate, and everyone else too.

Cheers Brandy Regular Smiley
My flickr pictures are here
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Because lunacy was the influence for an album. It goes without saying that an album about lunacy will breed a lunatics obsessions with an album - The Dark side of the moon!
 
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